ECHINACEA ROOT
(Echinacea purpurea)
extracted by tincture in food grade alcohol

Antibacterial / Antiseptic / Antiviral / Analgesic / Diaphoretic / Febrifuge / Depurative / Alterative


Plant Description & History: Echinacea is native to eastern North America and present to some extent in the wild in much of the eastern, southeastern and midwest United States. Although Native American tribes didn't use echinacea to prevent the common cold, some Plains tribes did use echinacea to treat some of the symptoms that could be caused by the common cold: The Kiowa used it for coughs and sore throats, the Cheyenne for sore throats, the Pawnee for headaches, and many tribes including the Lakotah used it as an analgesic.[1]

Constituents-Chemicals & Nutrients: Echinacea purpurea herb contains caffeic acid derivatives, mainly cichoric acid (1.23.1% in the flowers), caftaric acid and chlorogenic acid; 0.0010.03% alkamides, mainly isomeric dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamides; water soluble polysaccharides, including PS I (a 4-0-methylglucoronylarabinoxylan) and PS II (an acidic rhamnoarabinogalactan), fructans; 0.48% flavonoids of quercetin and kaempferol type (e.g., rutoside); 0.080.32% essential oil composed of borneol, bornyl acetate, pentadeca-8-en-2-one, palmitic acid, and others (Bauer, 1999a; Bauer and Liersch, 1993).

Studies: Study results are mixed on whether Echinacea can prevent or effectively treat upper respiratory infections such as the common cold. Different species of Echinacea (E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida) and the different parts (roots and aerial parts) have very different chemical compositions. Because of the these varying compositions, the results of studies have been inconsistent in their findings. The immunomodulatory effects of echinacea preparations are likely caused by fat-soluble alkylamides (alkamides), which occur mostly in E. angustifolia and E. purpurea but not in E. pallida.[2]

The Commission E reported that in human and animal experiments, E. purpurea preparations given internally or parenterally have shown immunostimulant effects. Among others, the number of white blood cells and spleen cells is increased, the capacity for phagocytosis by human granulocytes is activated, and the body temperature is elevated. Echinacea has been studied for nonspecific stimulation of the immune system, involving an overall increase in phagocytosis by macrophages and granulocytes.[3]

Indications: For treatment of upper respiratory infection (URI) and infections of the lower urinary tract.

Dosage for Adults: 5 ml (100 drops) per day, no longer than eight weeks

Warnings: No restrictions are known for use during pregnancy and lactation or interactions with other drugs.

References:
[1] Moerman, Daniel E. (1998). Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press. p. 205. ISBN 9780881924534.
[2] Wichtl Max (Ed.) 2004. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. medpharm Scientific Publishers/CRC Press. pp 179–186.
[3] Americn Botanical Council, Expanded E reference: http://cms.herbalgram.org/expandedE/EchinaceaPurpureaherb.html




Note: This information is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare provider. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of this extract is safe, appropriate, or effective for you. Consult your healthcare provider before taking this tincture.